Posted in Blog

What’s With Lore???

I’ve had an extremely exhausting week emotionally, as well as mentally and apart from working on a project for uni I’ve completely shut myself off from the rest of the world.

My partner and I almost broke up this week because it’s been a struggle.


I’m currently watching the TV series “Lore” on Amazon Prime and I’m on the second episode about lobotomies. I’m so mortified, I had to take a break to come and to the toilet and be sick halfway through. An ice pick in the eyes??? Why do movies and old skool cartoons pretend that it’s some kind of brain swap, or brain on the shelf thing, when it was actually even worse than that?


And why is mental health still something that is so misunderstood even now? The narrator was exclusively talking about the brain, when mental health is about the mind too. It’s like a battle of the two. Sometimes that’s the problem.


And with the way the system works now, dishing out anti-depressants is almost like being lobotomised in a way…


My main issues this week are to do with being so poorly let down and I’m beginning to want to live an apathetic life, which is in contrast to my personality, but I’m exhausted. I’m a minority in every single sense with nobody standing up for me.


I try to be grateful for what I have, but let’s be real:

I started off the year with a career, money, independence, friends, prospects, goals..

Now, I may have goals, but I don’t have anything else, apart from love.


My friends all got tired and deserted me because depression is boring (including the ones from a recent post. These recent weeks have been a burden to them).

And the rest you already know about.  


Anyway, I’m going to go back and watch “Lore”.

Perhaps an old skool cartoon lobotomy would be a good idea, to feel apathetic and not feel guilty about it either…🤔

Posted in Blog

Black People, Who Are You Saving?

Since I became “woke”, I try not to use the term to describe myself, but here goes…

 

Since I became woke, I have been doing anything I can to emancipate my people.

Even before, I could never abide injustice, could never stand by and watch somebody be bullied; I’ve put livelihoods and my life on the line for people I love and care for, even if it means that they get the justice that they deserve while I suffer. I’m suffering for it now – I’m a shell of the person that I used to be, just for opening my mouth to speak up against racism and discrimination, not only for myself, but for others too.

 

But this suffering doesn’t deter me; I have my down days, but being more woke has made me more determined to fight for Black rights: dignity, equal opportunities in employment, disability rights, women’s rights, rights to mental health. The latter especially – oh my god – needs to be taken seriously, this country (U.K.) does not take on board the mental and physical impacts of racism. I’m still having nightmares about the racially stimulated psychological torture I went through during my Teacher Training year; I still also struggle with suicide ideation because of these experiences, yet last week after an assessment, I was rejected from Community Mental Health for although being severely mentally unstable, I was simultaneously too high functioning, and therefore unsuitable for their services.

 

Thankfully, as a Black community we’re finally beginning to talk about Black Mental Health, however this is after years of struggle. Some of us grew up with parents who struggled daily with undiagnosed psychiatric conditions, who were either too afraid to ask for help, for fear that their child(ren) would be taken away from them by the state, or like my mother, just prayed and left it to God instead. Which brings be to my next point.

 

Abuse.

 

We, as a community are infamous for covering up abuse; we “leave it to God”, when what we’re really saying is that we do not value our women and children. I read countless headlines about Black celebrities who are going to “pray for R Kelly”. Why? Why aren’t you going to publicly boycott his music and support his victims instead? Radio stations continue to play a known sex offender’s music and venues are continuing to stage his concerts. It’s disgusting. It makes me sick. This predator is making millions and his fans are also showing no signs to disappearing.  

What you are really saying is that you value rapists over our women.

Turning your back on a Black man who is a rapist or abuser or predator, is not saying that you have chosen to side with the White man (enemy).

What you are doing, is showing solidarity to a victim who needs it, while the abuser is finally getting the justice they deserve. Open your fucking eyes.

Terry Crews (Image source)

Terry Crews receives hate from his own kin. Now Terry Crews is a legend:

1200px-Terry_Crews_by_Gage_Skidmore_5

While an NFL Player, he also spoke out about the mistreatment players by some of the doctors and received an incredible backlash because just like Colin Kaepernick, many people in the Black community felt that Crews should kept his mouth shut, taken his cheque and played the game. Now Crews is suffering the same backlash again: Some Black people say that he should’ve kept his mouth closed about his assault. Why? Why are White people allowed to speak up and get so much support from their own, yet we throw our own under the bus? Some Black men are calling him a faggot for allowing the attack to even happen, while some Black women are telling him to keep quiet. Thankfully, there are some kin, like me, who see sense! Who see a man speaking up because he suffered an injustice, but unfortunately even as a man, his voice is incredibly small, very much like Lupita Nyong’o, who was assaulted by Harvey Weinstein, but not only was her story vehemently denied, it was also ignored… and I don’t need to spell out why.

Lupita_Nyong'o_May_2017

Lupita Nyong’o (Image source)

And it is not only celebrities that this is happening to; this happened to me and it’s happening to normal Black men and women every single day.

And I’ve had friends say to me, “well why didn’t you keep quiet?” instead of “don’t worry, I’ve got your back”, or even better: “let me take that baton from you” or EVEN BETTER: “where that bitch at? Ima smash her/him up for you.”. 

As Black people, we’re always looking around for somebody to save us, but I’m not entirely sure who you’re looking for, because as much as I love being an advocate, I’m pretty tired of fucking saving other people’s arses.

I’m tired and I have my own arse to save.

This is a fight that requires EVERYBODY in the Black community.

XOXO  

Posted in Blog, Mental Health

Friendship – Check Please

I want to talk about friendship and when you allow the boundaries to be overstepped, in the sake of friendship, how many times, before it all becomes too far?

I’m a good friend, I build people up, I see their insecurities and I use that to encourage them. I guess lately because of my state of Mental Health I’ve expected the same back from my friends, however the reason why my circle of friends has diminished is because I haven’t gotten this back.

One of my best friends came over to my place last weekend, it was the first time we’d seen each other in about a year but we speak on the phone almost every weekend. I was extremely excited, I cleaned the flat and I cooked. When she came, my partner and I showed her around as it was the first time she’d seen the flat.

She spent a lot of time on her phone, but I also still had to finish up dinner…

She didn’t show as much enthusiasm for my Wall of Black Magic (my pride and joy), as I thought she would. But then, you can’t expect everybody to share your passions…

Wall of Black Magic

She made inferences about my not being “woke” enough and she’s always done this, because I’ve always had interracial relationships, however now it was really starting to touch a nerve, because of everything I’m doing on social media to raise awareness for Black Mental Health.

There were also inferences like, because I don’t wrap my hair at night, while watching “Girls’ Trip”, I’m therefore not properly Black. Perhaps it was a joke, but because of everything else that had happened, I didn’t find it funny, because taking 14 pills a day leaves me too exhausted to know my own name, let alone remember to wrap my fucking hair every night.

Which brings me to the real dagger of the event: we were discussing my plans for once I finish my MSc in two or three years time. Currently, my partner and I are discussing the option of my working part-time as a therapist with ethnic minorities, while also pursuing the option of working in Cultural Psychological Research part-time, perhaps a part-time PhD.

My friend felt that because of my health issues, I shouldn’t have contact with people and that perhaps, advocacy would be the best option for now. Not two or three years from now. Now.

I challenged her about this, by saying that we don’t have enough people of colour in therapy, plus we’re not talking about now, but two or three years time, however she still disagreed. I also challenged her by saying that research is incredibly stressful, especially for people with mental health issues – my other friend is doing a PhD and her supervisor is unforgiving, plus just look at the challenges I’m facing with research at MSc level.

But then I’m crazy, what do I know? And too disabled.

I messaged her about it the next day and she backtracked, saying that she claimed that she thought we were talking about my plans for now.

But you asked the question: what are my plans for after?

She still stood by her opinion however, and although I don’t have to take her opinion (which I told her that I won’t), she only wants the best for me.

My theory is that she also wants to be a therapist, sometime in the future, therefore why not have people like me do all of the hard work in the field of research so that she doesn’t have to.

So it was a disappointing day, even little things: to not have seen a friend in a year and not compliment them on their appearance? And I know that I have to check myself here, because I waste way too much mental energy on shit like this, analysing the absence of compliments, ESPECIALLY when I have a partner who tells me how fucking hot I am every day!

And I don’t build my friends up to get something in return… I’m not building savings accounts to dip into whenever I need them 🤔 but the lack of validation from childhood still runs deep and my close friends know this. And with the absence of therapy/ access to therapy, Women of Colour need their friends to build them up.

For example, my weave is just one of the things that makes me feel more Black, so a compliment from my closest Black friend about my hair would’ve validated my Blackness.

Or at least given me some confidence, which I really need right now, which embarrasses me to admit…

Instead, although she ate the chicken I cooked for her, she picked at my rice and peas and made constant inferences on my “woke-ness”.

Now I just feel deflated.

There is a proverb about friendship:

“One finger cannot hold up a thing”

which illustrates the need for others in our lives. Relationships can be communal or exchange; communal relationships benefit the well-being of the people within the relationship, like a community; exchange relationships are where people give benefits with the benefit that they will receive comparable benefits in return.

While writing this post, I also spoke to another friend who said that sometimes you just have to shut the door and keep the world on the outside of that door, with you and your partner alone on the inside. Close friendships are great, but there’s nothing like a great partnership and it’s you two against the rest of the world.

XOXO

Posted in Blog, Mental Health

When Racial Microaggressions Become Aggressive Racism

White people are funny.


One minute you’re having a conversation, which without your consent then becomes a debate. 

But that’s ok, because you can hold your own. But then there’s more of them than there are of you, so what do you do?



Well, you still hold your own because this is a debate, except they gang up against you, because you’re more intelligent than them and suddenly this is an argument and now they’re overstepping the mark.

Now you decide to respectfully leave.

Some are blocking your exits; some chase you down alleyways; some follow you down the staircase.


But this isn’t real life. This is social media.  


I took myself out of a situation on Facebook and now I’m being stalked on Twitter, and there’s nothing that Twitter can do because they’re not saying anything nasty to me. They just weren’t friends with me on Facebook, and I fell out with a mutual friend of ours, who didn’t like the way things ended, plus they also happen to be the bullies I mentioned, who were part of the “debate” and have somehow tracked me down on Twitter to ask me “what my problem is?” with unbelievably poor spelling, punctuation and grammar 🤪


These women were implicitly and aggressively racist.

They were aggressive in their methods, yet did not realise that they were being racist and this is the problem with white people today in Britain. They allowed their insecurities about themselves to get the better of them, which controlled their emotions and turned them into bullies; perhaps my friend has always been racist or perhaps she lost herself in this moment amongst her schema (social environment)… who knows? 


As for her mother… well… we all know what Freud says about mothers, so there isn’t much left to say is there really?! The fact that she would have to fabricate stories, on behalf of her daughter about my disability to try and alienate my Twitter followers says it all really doesn’t it?

These are the sort of women who will say:

But her nephew is mixed raced, how is she racist?

I have five Black friends, how am I a racist?

Mate, my partner is white, and most of my friends used to be too, however l have no problem in declaring my issues with White people, because of their problems with me.


I’ve experienced ontological insecurity before: always in breakdowns of relationships with white women, and therefore, I know the warning signals. Another reason why these women came to find me on Twitter was clearly to gaslight me, which just proves really that they really are racists. So if that’s the kind of person my friend was, based on her behaviour, plus her mother’s and friend’s too, then I’ve had a fucking lucky escape. 

You have a right to protect your mental health 💜

Posted in Blog

Rapist Sympathisers a.k.a. BITCHES

I used to be a huge fan of the Backstreet Boys.

For my eleventh birthday, we had barely any money because my father had just walked out on us, however my mother knew how much I loved them and wanted their first album, therefore found the money to buy it for me. It’s still my favourite birthday present. The wall adjacent to my bed was plastered in posters of them all, from Top of the Pops and Smash Hits magazines, so that every morning I could wake up, sit up and see all of their faces! And I made sure to get all of their albums. Unfortunately, I never did get to see them live. Coming from a strictly religious home, being allowed to have posters on my wall was pushing the limits enough.

 

Anyway, then Westlife came along and it was a battle of the bands before the Irish lilt eventually won me over and their posters slowly took more and more space across my wall. Oh the stresses of being a teen!

 

Nick Carter was never my favourite member of BSB if I’m honest; I’ve never been a fan of a pretty boy, plus I always found him slightly arrogant compared to the others who always seemed to come across as slightly more humble – even if it was manufactured. One of my BFFs in Secondary School at the time hated me for it, because Nick was the love of her life and couldn’t understand how I could be so judgemental, however I stood my ground. My favourite was Brian, he was sweet and had the best voice.

 

On early Wednesday morning, when I read Melissa Schuman’s blog post about what Nick Carter had done to her, I didn’t doubt her for a second, not only because I myself have been abused and sexually assaulted, but also because I am a woman and stand in solidarity with Melissa. It didn’t matter to me that I’d never heard of Melissa before somebody had retweeted the post on my timeline, but I had heard of Nick; it didn’t matter that there were spelling mistakes in the post that might make somebody question it genuinity; it didn’t matter that the assault had happened fifteen years ago but Melissa had only opened up about it now; it didn’t matter that Nick was denying it; it didn’t matter that there were no witnesses and no proof.

 

I believed her.

Melissa Schuman and Nck Carter-tmz-getty-4

(Image source)

On my Facebook profile, I shared the post and a friend and I were talking about it, both agreeing that we believed Melissa.

Another friend had also shared the post. As a huge BSB fan in her thirties, she was conflicted about who to believe, because “the fifteen-year-old in her wanted to believe Nick”; she felt that as a massive fan she “knew Nick” and her and her friends began debating and dissecting the blog post. Most of her friends disbelieved Melissa and my friend seemed to be swayed. I’d already said my piece on her page, while simultaneously talking on my own profile to my other friend who agreed with me, however she then came onto my page to agree with us, as if she was trying to save face in-front of me. Then she went back on her profile, to carry on defending Nick to appease her friends. I was shocked. She soon became defensive and also said that we had a right to judge Melissa on social media. Her friends decided to explain to me that this wasn’t a courtroom and one of them even explained to me how a courtroom works, which I found extremely patronising (considering that I studied Law in College). When I said so, one of them mocked me by saying:

 

“Oh look, she knows things!”

 

I decided that it was time to leave the conversation, where without me present they continued to mock me.

 

Not once did my friend stick up for me.

 

I couldn’t believe that a group of women in their thirties were behaving like this. Just because they didn’t want to believe that a man that they used to worship as a teenager, and that they still worship now because their lives are so pathetic that they can’t let go of their crushes, they would rather sympathise with a suspected rapist than a victim.

 

I had to block this now ex-friend on all social networking sites.

 

I also stuck up for this ex-friend, when we both used to work together, which is in fact how met; When I was diagnosed with Epilepsy I was working for a bitch of a Head Teacher as her PA and Office Manager and she not only bullied me, but also the rest of her staff – particularly this one woman (the ex-friend) relentlessly: for her weight, her children, her work ethic, her intelligence, anything she could think of about her to pick on. We worked together for a short space of time and in my quest for standing up for myself, I also stood up for my team – which actually made things worse for me – regardless of being incredibly sick. In the years that we’ve been friends, she’s always been thankful for what I did – today, however, she told me that we only worked together for two weeks, most of which I was sick, so it’s not a big deal. In other words, get over it. She then sent her mother after me to harass me on Twitter too, because even though I was in bed today recovering from a seizure from three days ago (which she knew), she still needed to send her mummy after me to tell me off.

 

This is what women like this are like: victim blamers, rapist sympathisers, passive aggressive bullies, who pretend that they can’t fend for themselves, but when push comes to shove and they see another women in need, a victim, they will always side with the man.

 

We don’t need these bitches.

XOXO

 

 

 

Posted in Blog

Battle Royale: Fighting for Survival

Battle Royale

(Image Source)

I’m so thankful that I have such an incredibly supportive partner, who’s here to prop me up when I can no longer stand.

I’m crying as I write this, because yet again I’ve been forced to be the Katniss Everdeen of my course.

3 fingers katniss

(Image source)

During my Teacher Training – particularly at the beginning, I was forced to stand up for everybody because we were all unhappy and stressed and now again I feel like I’m in “Groundhog Day”, as I’ve been forced to stand up for not only myself but other people in order to protect myself, because of my invisible disability.

I feel like when you have an invisible disability, nobody speaks up for you and therefore you are constantly forced to shout, cry, kick, scream for yourself, to protect yourself, to fight for yourself because nobody else will.

I’m currently in my second module in my MSc and we have a horrendously unsupportive professor. During the first couple of weeks of the module, she wasn’t even responding to emails and we all noticed that even though she was giving us different grades, she was doing a cut and paste job of giving us feedback – therefore you can imagine how frustrating it would be to not receive a response to emails, particularly for a course which is completely based online. Furthermore, she wasn’t engaging in the discussion forum online.

However, the other students studying the same module with different professors are having a far better experience: their professors are engaging with them, helping them. There’s also another disabled student on the course who even has her professor’s mobile number! When I made a complaint about the lack of support I was receiving as a disabled student, I mentioned this and explained that all I wanted was an email back at least!

The Disability Centre just don’t get seem to get it. This professor has a poor history (I’ve “Googled her) and yet, has been employed by a University which claims to have high standards, but have clearly fallen short because instead of being taught or supported by a professor they’ve employed, their students are receiving hand-me-downs through a student Whatsapp group. Instead, they’re blaming my poor time management skills.

If I had a physical disability, I wouldn’t be spoken to in such a way.

They did say that I could make a complaint, which I will and I’ve also contacted my Student Support Officer – who hasn’t even had the courtesy to reply, yet at the beginning of my academic year when I was sick from having seizures was incredibly rude when I didn’t respond to her calls or emails, so she better have a damn good excuse for ignoring me, otherwise she’ll be included in my formal complaint too.

Since I made my concerns known however, things have changed: she may not reply as quickly as the other professors, but she does now reply to our emails and her feedback to our assignments has also improved as has her engagement in the online forum. Therefore, the Disability Centre were clearly gaslighting me to abate my complaint as well as my needs.

Furthermore, I receive DSA (Disabled Students’ Allowance) and when I asked about being reimbursed for a footrest due to leg issues because of my seizures, I received the rudest and most ignorant reply from one of their advisors. My response back was incredibly blunt and I asked for details so that I could make a complaint. Their lack of support has been offensive.

Having an invisible disability is so fucking time consuming.

I feel like society is becoming more and more willfully ignorant, and I’m becoming more and more exhausted. I have a migraine tonight, just from battling with my professor, because as well as that I was also doing interviews for my Final Project and research and kind of sort of forgot to eat.

Oops (Image source)

If I have another seizure, I’ll be set back again (I’m already behind the rest of the class) and this professor has already been unsympathetic towards my health issues during this module (even when I nearly died! No extra time and I got a D for the assignment that was due that week!)

Perhaps if I do have a seizure, I’ll cut off a leg too and see how much sympathy I get for that…..

XOXO

Posted in Blog, Mental Health

Violence and Aggression against African American Women and Children, by Cece Alexandra Noel (2017)

DV (Image source)

Violence and Aggression against African American Women and Children

by Cece Alexandra Noel (2017)

I believe the theory of evolutionary aggression and violence can be seen in the homes of African American families. People require more than food and shelter to survive, so this aggression is also societal.

Social learning theory (Anderson & Bushman, 2002) caused by institutional racism – either directly experienced or observed – conceptualises the anger, hatred and frustrations of African American men, which are then being displaced onto their partners, lovers and children.

Anderson & Bushman’s General aggression model (GAM), a holistic framework then looks at the multiple theories of aggression, however scholarship has emphasised the male experience as opposed to the female.

Hill Collins categorises violence into three dimensions – the second of which concerns the relationship between actions and speech. We can hypothesise that this quantifies as aggression and violence, designed to belittle, humiliate, and strip victims of their sense of worth, while the powerful individual inflicting the violence has no idea that they – in fact – are reproducing the subverted climate of fear seen outside of their homes. To return to the theory of evolutionary aggression – which would typically come from perpetrators of racism and therefore is designed to belittle and humiliate the minorities, Hill Collins’ theory correctly establishes the ethnography of abuse for African-American women and children: silence will yield better treatment; victims know that their homes will provide better refuge in a world that preys upon the weak (Hill Collins, p.925).

Unfortunately, the man knows his power over his household, as do his victims, therefore he must be playing a role of self-efficacy (Anderson & Bushman, 2002, p.36), for his specific aggressive acts have been chosen with the belief that those he has victimised will remain in fear, just like the generations of Black people before him. Anderson and Bushman also suggest that the anger-aggression linkage is one that humans are evolutionarily prepared to learn, particularly in relationships.

My next hypothesis therefore, considers environmental factors, which have stripped these men of their self-esteem, but which Anderson and Bushman’s GAM does fail to consider. Their frustration stems from relative depravation (Myers, 2013), because the American Dream has failed them, and they are taking their learnt aggression out on their families, which they perceive to be the only property of worth to them. With low levels of serotonin and high levels of testosterone, it is generally accepted that the expression of aggression is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors (Laureate, 2017).

Anderson and Bushman suggest Multisystemic therapy, which is not only family focused intervention; it is also a biosocial intervention framework, built around the individual, as well as the family, to understand the cues of aggression and violence, with the goal of reducing it.

But what if you can’t escape the aggression cues such as racism, racial inequalities or societal humiliation? How much will the person really change?

A study on Domestic Violence in the African American Community by Hampton, Oliver and Magarian (2003) found that not only providing employment for Black men was the solution to, but simultaneously re-educating them on their perceptions of Black women, by confronting sexist stereotypes and enhanced male-female relationships, was a solution to helping to reduce violence within families. This was also intrinsic to reforming the Black community.

However, social psychology contributes to the problem because these methodologies do not protect women and children. I challenge psychologists to create interventions with an emphasis on building a biosocial intervention frameworks for women and children within the African American community, to feel safe enough to come forward and break the pattern of evolutionary violence within families.

The repetitive vicious cycle of violence is also a major issue within the African American ethnographic; children are either forced to resolve conflicts or become imitators. The biopsychosocial model explains how children who directly experience violence or observe others’ aggressive behaviour, then replicate the same negative responses outside.

R.E. Davis (1997) raised the key point that providers do not offer intervention to allow this ethnographic the space to elicit information about early traumatic life events (Hampton, Magarian & Oliver, 2003), therefore the psychosocial needs for children are not being met, allowing the cycle to continue into the next generation.

Black women are perceived to be the property of their partners – particularly if they are unemployed, and even if they contribute to the community, because in the eyes of the perpetrator this is not a contribution to the household. The feminist activities during the Black Panther Movement, were and still are significant downplayed and women were appallingly treated by their male counterparts. This was also all witnessed by their children.

Naples’ Activist Mothering, is just one example of how African American women in modern memory, continue community work, which not only involves nurturing work for those outside one’s kinship group, but also encompasses a broad definition of actual “mothering practices” (Naples, p.448). As well as adapting their environment, women also opened their homes to young women with children, challenged “traditional notions of gender and mothering” (Naples, p.454) and bequeathed a new legacy to their children.

However, there were consequences such as overlapping demands. Within the community itself this was taken care of with “othermothers” (Troester, 1984) to assist with childcare, but some of the women reported problems within their personal relationships, which I hypothesise is causal to an escalation of domestic violence due to emasculation and jealousy. Some of the women also chose to obtain professional credentials (three African-Americans and seven Latinos), which may further cause provocation of violence at home. Other than the “othermothers”, no other intervention was provided for these women and their children to safeguard them.

African Americans live a bicultural reality (Collins, 1998), where the social process of violence is “hidden in plain sight” of children (Collins, 1998, p.925); Women are accused of betraying their race, should they report their partners and flee a perpetrator. Religion plays a huge part; Women especially, turn to their faith. Spirituality and the Black Church are anchors within the Black community (Billingsley, 1992). Yet, religious ideology undermines Black women and doctrine sanctions women for breaking marriages, while teaching their children that their fathers are the physical and spiritual author of the household (Bell & Mathis, 2000).

Research suggests that children who live in female-headed households do not do as well on several social indicators; for example, there is a higher school dropout rate among these children, and that daughters are at higher risk of becoming teen parents (Allison & Belgrave, 2006, p.64-65) However, this is not a reason to encourage victims to stay in abusive homes. Breaking the cycle of aggression and violence with divorce / separation has a higher psychosocial impact, than keeping children within the conflict.

What these women and particularly their children need, are early intervention. African American children are forced into an early adulthood: there is less warmth at home (Hofferth, 2003), and they are forced to take on adult roles, but outside are still expected to be children (Allison & Belgrave, 2006). What they need is an outlet and community violence intervention resources, which will prevent them from engaging in violence and early sexual intimacy (Allison & Belgrave, 2006).

 

References

Allison. K.W., & Belgrave. F.Z. (2006). African American Psychology: From Africa to America. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.  Section II, Social Systems & Structures, Chapter Three: Kinship & Family, “Consequences of Family Structure on Children’s Outcomes”, (p.64). Section III, Individual & Developmental Processes, Chapter Ten: “Lifespan Development”, (pp.242-244).

Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human Aggression, Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1)27-51.

FORA.tv. (n.d.). Genocide to Abu Ghraib: How good people turn evil [Video file]. Retrieved from http://library.fora.tv/2008/01/24/Genocide_to_Abu_Ghraib_How_Good_People_Turn_Evil#Abu_Ghraib_Dark_Side_of_Human_Nature

Hampton, R., Oliver, W., & Magarian, L. (2003). Domestic Violence in the African American Community: An Analysis of Social and Structural Factors, Violence Against Women, Vol. 9 No. 5, 533-557. DOI: 10.1177/1077801201150450.

Hill Collins, P. (1998). The tie that binds: race, gender and US violence, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(1)5, 917-938, DOI: 10.1080/01498798329720.

Myers, D. G., & Twenge, J. M. (2013). Social psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw–Hill. Chapter 10, “Aggression: Hurting Others” (pp. 352–391).

Naples, N. (1992). Activist Mothering: Cross-Generational Continuity in the Community Work of Women from Low-Income Urban Neighbourhoods, Gender and Society, Vol. 6, No. 3. Race, Class & Gender, pp. 441-463. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org.stable/189996

Laureate Online, (2017) Week 7 Weekly Notes: Aggression and Violence [Social Psychology]. Retrieved from https://elearning.uol.ohecampus.com/bbcswebdav/institution/UKL1/201820OCT/MS_LPSY/LPSY_311/readings/LPSY_311_Week07_weeklyNotes.pdf